Agreement on CCAV Glossary by SHOW Consortium for the duration of the project
|Automated Vehicle (AV)
|A motor vehicle designed and constructed to move autonomously for certain periods of time without continuous driver supervision but in respect of which driver intervention is still expected or required
|Fully automated Vehicle
|A motor vehicle that has been designed and constructed to move autonomously without any driver supervision
|Any unplanned event that resulted in injury or ill-health of people or damage or loss to property, plant, materials or the environment or a loss of business opportunity
|It is the scenario investigated during the entire accident analysis including levels of injury severity, as well as the transport modes that represent a higher risk for VRUs. It is described by the type of road users involved in the accident, their motions expressed as ‘accident types’ and further most contextual factors like the course of the road, light conditions, weather conditions and view obstruction.
|Active safety system (ASS)
|Active safety systems are vehicle systems that sense and monitor conditions inside and outside the vehicle for the purpose of identifying perceived present and potential dangers to the vehicle, occupants, and/or other road users, and automatically intervene to help avoid or mitigate potential collisions via various methods, including alerts to the driver, vehicle system adjustments, and/or active control of the vehicle subsystems (brakes, throttle, suspension, etc.)
|Adaptive cruise control (including Stop & Go) (ACC)
|Adaptive cruise control with stop & go function includes automatic distance control (control
range 0–250 km/h) and, within the limits of the system, detects a preceding vehicle. It maintains a safe distance by automatically applying the brakes and accelerating. In slow-moving traffic and congestion, it governs braking and acceleration.
|A process whereby the elements of a system are sub-divided between the various items which comprise the system to provide individual targets (EN50126).
|The undertaking of an investigation in order to arrive at a judgement, based on evidence, of the suitability of a product (EN50126)
|Attempt to destroy, expose, alter, disable, steal or gain unauthorized access to or make unauthorized use of an asset
|A systematic and independent examination to determine whether the procedures specific to the requirements of a product comply with the planned arrangements, are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve the specified objectives (EN50126).
|Automated Driving System (ADS)
|The hardware and software that are collectively capable of performing the entire DDT on a sustained basis, regardless of whether it is limited to a specific operational design domain (ODD); this term is used specifically to describe a level 3, 4, or 5 driving automation system.
|Automation Level 0 (No Driving Automation)
|The performance of the entire DDT by the driver, even when enhanced by active safety systems
|Automation Level 1 (Driver Assistance)
|The sustained and ODD-specific execution of either the lateral or the longitudinal vehicle motion control subtask of the DDT (but not both simultaneously) by a driving automation system with the expectation that the driver performs the remainder of the DDT.
|Automation Level 2 (Partial Driving Automation)
|The sustained and ODD-specific execution of both the lateral and longitudinal vehicle motion control subtasks of the DDT by a driving automation system with the expectation that the driver completes the OEDR subtask and supervises the driving automation system.
|Automation Level 3 (Conditional Driving Automation)
|The sustained and ODD-specific performance of the entire DDT by an ADS with the expectation that the DDT fallback-ready user is receptive to ADS-issued requests to intervene, as well as to DDT performance-relevant system failures in other vehicle systems, and will respond appropriately.
|Automation Level 4 (High Driving Automation)
|The sustained and ODD-specific performance of the entire DDT and DDT fallback by an ADS , without any expectation that a user will respond to a request to intervene.
|Automation Level 5 (Full Driving Automation)
|The sustained and unconditional (i.e., not ODD-specific) performance of the entire DDT and DDT fallback by an ADS without any expectation that a user will respond to a request to intervene.
|Reference to which the series of tests in a study are compared
|A business case is a sustainable, up-scaled implementation of the piloted scenarios. It describes the business model (qualitative) and a cost& revenue analysis over a certain time. Business cases in SHOW will be developed within D16.2.
|The network of organizations—including suppliers, distributors, customers, competitors, government agencies, and so on—involved in the delivery of a specific product or service through both competition and cooperation.
|A simplifiedillustration done through mapping of various components that can be found in every business/ project. The most known methodology fordescribing business models is the Business Model Canvas, which describes 9 components.
|A business plan describes entirety of methods to realize a business/ project. The most important components of a business plan are: strategy, business case, financeand the target-performance comparison in the startup phase. A business plan is not a methodology in the project.
|test environment without public traffic
|A collective term for the activities undertaken to prepare a system or product prior to demonstrating that it meets its specified requirements (EN50126).
|Common Cause Failure
|A failure which is the result of an event(s) which causes a coincidence of failure states of two or more components leading to a system failing to perform its required function (EN50126).
|A demonstration that a characteristic or property of a product satisfies the stated requirements (EN50126).
|parameterised model of the time sequence of scenes (logical scenario) which begins with an initial scene and defined point in time; the behaviour of the main actor (vehicle under test) is not further specified.
|influential variables that are kept constant within a series of tests
|Controlled test environment
|setting under which variables external to the vehicle under test are determined
|A driver who manually exercises in-vehicle braking, accelerating, steering, and transmission gear selection input devices in order to operate a vehicle.
|scenario in which two or more parameter values are each within the capabilities of the system, but together constitute a rare condition that challenges its capabilities
|Criticality is defined for every vehicle independent from the driver. Criticality is defined as temporal and/or spatial proximity to a situation from which an accident is not evitable. Higher criticality results in higher demands on the human and the Automated Driving Function.
|Crossing Clearance Zone
|It is a zone defined in at-grade crossings, as the intersection between the ARTS lane and the crossing roads plus a buffer area that extends in the direction of the crossing road. If the crossing is protected with physical barriers, the buffer zone extends until these barriers. The main objective of the buffer zone is to prevent that an obstacle coming on the crossing road reaches the ARTS vehicle’s emergency volume while the vehicle is not at rest, either using on-board or infrastructure-based sensors. Figure 10 shows an example of the ARTS crossing clearance zone (a) and the buffer zone (b) in one of the ARTS integration scenarios.
|Cyber physical model
|representation of objects using a combination of physical and virtual models for interaction with each other
|Cybersecurity is the protection of connected systems including hardware, software and data from internal and external attacks carried by malicious entities with or without authorization.
|Final demonstration used for final evaluation(WP12).
|Description of what will be included in the Demonstration sites. The same as pilot plan but specific for a demonstration site.
|Demonstration site (Demo site)
|A city that demonstrates part of or a full set of systems/services possible in future sustainable cities.The abbreviation is Demo site.
|The failure of a set of events, the probability of which cannot be expressed as the simple product of the unconditional probabilities of the individual events (EN50126).
|measurement calculated from a direct measurement (e. g. by applying mathematical or statistical operations) or a combination of one or more direct or derived measurements
|Digital twin [of pilot site]
|digitalized version of pilot site
|measurement logged directly from a sensor, without further manipulations except linear transformations (e.g. m/s to kph)
|Dispatch [in driverless operation]
|To place an ADS-equipped vehicle into service in driverless operation by engaging the ADS.
|Dispatching entity [driverless operation]
|An entity that dispatches an ADS-equipped vehicle(s) in driverless operation.
|Distance to Stop Line
|Distance from the vehicle’s front to the next stop line in the vehicle’s planned path applying comfort deceleration and jerk values (based on ETSI TS 102 637-2).
|The time interval during which a product is in a down state. (IEC 60050(191)).
|Driver support [driving automation system] feature
|A general term for level 1 and level 2 driving automation system features.
|action by the driver to regain manual control of the vehicle
|Driverless operation [of an ADS-equipped vehicle]
|Operation of an ADS-equipped vehicle in which either no on-board user is present, or in which on-board users are not drivers or fallback-ready users.
|Driverless operation dispatcher
|A user(s) who dispatches an ADS-equipped vehicle(s) in driverless operation.
|The performance by hardware/software systems of part or all of the DDT on a sustained basis.
|Driving automation system or technology
|The hardware and software that are collectively capable of performing part or all of the DDT on a sustained basis; this term is used generically to describe any system capable of level 1-5 driving automation.
|Dual-mode vehicle [ADS-equipped]
|A type of ADS (automated driving system)-equipped vehicle designed for both driverless operation and operation by a conventional driver for complete trips.
|Dynamic driving task (DDT)
|All of the real-time operational and tactical functions required to operate a vehicle in on-road traffic, excluding the strategic functions such as trip scheduling and selection of destinations and waypoints
|scenario in which the extreme values or even the very presence of one or more parameters results in a condition that challenges the capabilities of the system
|The Ego-vehicle is the automated vehicle from whose perspective the traffic situation is viewed. The data recorded by the ego-vehicle through its sensors describes the traffic situation from its perspective relative to its own condition.
|Emergency Braking Distance
|The distance required by the ARTS vehicle to come to a complete stop at emergency deceleration, calculated along its planned path.
|Is the maximum deceleration that the ARTS vehicle can apply.
|Is a zone composed of a zone centred on the ARTS vehicle whose dimensions are the ARTS vehicle’s width and length + 0.5 m on each side and a zone surrounding the vehicle path of width the vehicle width + 0.5 [m] on each side or the lane width. Its length is the emergency braking distance, meaning that it depends on the current vehicle velocity. Any static obstacle detected in this zone must force the vehicle to stop at an emergency deceleration. The emergency zone is done through the use of on-board sensors and infrastructure sensors, if available.
|This is the theoretical description of how the evaluation be done
|influencing change of state or condition within a scenario
|Description of what, how and when the test cases will be evaluated (what data to collect, when andwhat tool to use).
|measurement provided by sensors outside of the log equipment used in the study
|Designed to return to a safe condition in the event of a failure or malfunction.
|A failure is any fault in the system that prevents a vehicle from completing its planned journey or stops a vehicle in the station or depot movement areas.
|The circumstances during design, manufacture or use which have led to a failure. (IEC 60050(1 91)).
|The predicted or observed results of a failure cause on a stated item in relation to the operating conditions at the time of the failure (EN50126).
|The limit, if this exists, of the ratio of the conditional probability that the instant of time, T, of a failure of a product falls within a given time interval (t, t+Jt) and the length of this interval, It, when It tends towards zero, given that the item is in an up state at the start of the time interval (EN50126).
|Fallback [dynamic driving task]
|The response by the user to either perform the DDT or achieve a minimal risk condition after occurrence of a DDT performance-relevant system failure(s) or upon operational design domain (ODD) exit, or the response by an ADS to achieve minimal risk condition, given the same circumstances.
|Fallback-ready user [DDT]
|The user of a vehicle equipped with an engaged level 3 ADS feature who is able to operate the vehicle and is receptive to ADS-issued requests to intervene and to evident DDT performance-relevant system failures in the vehicle compelling him or her to perform the DDT fallback.
|One of the possible states of a faulty product for a given required function. (IEC 60050(191)).
|Feature or application [driving automation system]
|A level 1-5 driving automation system’s design-specific functionality at a given level of driving automation within a particular ODD, if applicable.
|Field operational test (FOT)
|study to evaluate functions or vehicles under typical operating conditions in uncontrolled environments encountered by the vehicle under test
|Front Collision Warning (FCW)
|The Front Collision Warning monitoring system uses a radar sensor to detect situations where the
distance to the vehicle in front is critical and helps to reduce the vehicle’s stopping distance. In
dangerous situations, the system alerts the driver by means of visual and acoustic signals and/
or with a warning jolt of the brakes. Front Collision Warning operates independently of the ACC
automatic distance control.
|Implementation of a set of rules to achieve a specified goal
|A functional scenario is a temporal sequence that describes one of the behaviours of a system during a specific use case, with a nominal scenario and alternative scenarios. It is described in a linguistic way or with a structured language. Functional scenarios are derived from driving functions. They are used to describe the use case at a high level (higher than logical and concrete scenarios).
|controlled transition of the vehicle control from the system to the driver and vice versa
|Physical injury or damage to the health of persons
|Source of potential harm
|The document in which all safety management activities, hazards identified, decisions made and solutions adopted are recorded or referenced. Also known as a “Safety Log”. (ENV 50129).
|A user who performs in real-time part or all of the DDT and/or DDT fallback for a particular vehicle.
|scenario participant that either requires the vehicle under test to take action or limits its action
|Infrastructure Support levels for Automated Driving (ISAD)
|ISAD levels can be assigned to parts of the network in order to give automated vehicles and their operators guidance on the “readiness” of the road network for the coming highway automation era. Infrastructure support levels are meant to describe road or motorway sections rather than whole road networks. The following levels are being developed in INFRAMIX project:
|state of the environment and vehicle under test at the beginning of a scenario
|measurement provided by sensors of the system under test in the study
|A team that intervenes to incidents
|Lane Change Assist (LCA)
|The system monitors the areas to the left and right of the car, including the blind spot detection,
and up to 50 metres behind it and warns you of a potentially hazardous situation by means of
flashing warning lights in the exterior mirrors.
|Lane Departure Warning (LDW)
|Lane Departure Warning helps to prevent accidents caused by unintentionally wandering out
of lane, and represents a major safety gain on motorways and major trunk roads. If there is an
indication that the vehicle is about to leave the lane unintentionally, the system alerts the driver visually and in some cases by means of a signal on the steering wheel.
|Lane Keeping Assist (LKA)
|Lane Assist automatically becomes active from a specific speed (normally from 50 km/h) and
upwards. The system detects the lane markings and works out the position of the vehicle. If the
car starts to drift off lane, the LKA takes corrective action. If the maximum action it can take is
not enough to stay in lane, or the speed falls below 50 km/h, the LKA function warns the driver
(e.g. with a vibration of the steering wheel). Then it is up to the driver to take correcting action.
|Lateral vehicle motion control
|The DDT subtask comprising the activities necessary for the real-time, sustained regulation of the lateral component of vehicle motion
|beginning with an initial scene, a model of the time sequence of scenes whose parameters are defined as ranges; at a defined point in time, the behaviour of the main actor (vehicle under test) is not further specified
|Logitudinal vehicle motion control
|The DDT subtask comprising the activities necessary for the real-time, sustained regulation of the longitudinal component of vehicle motion
|Scenarios that are defined in relation to the delineationof AV service types that are implemented across SHOW demonstration sites for the purpose of the holistic M3ICA method developed for theSHOW project.
|physical movement of an actor in a scenario
|algorithm to calculate an indicator based on measurements applied to a concrete scenario
|Minimal risk condition (MRC)
|A condition to which a user or an ADS may bring a vehicle after performing the DDT fallback in order to reduce the risk of a crash when a given trip cannot or should not be completed.
|An objective description of the fundamental task performed by a system (EN50126).
|Outline of the expected range and variation in the mission with respect to parameters such as time, loading, speed, distance, stops, tunnels, etc., in the operational phases of the lifecycle (EN50126).
|Mixed traffic environment
|Traffic environment in which automated vehicles are mixed with other non‐equipped traffic participants such as pedestrians, cyclists, powered two‐wheelers, and other driven vehicles
|Monitor driving automation system performance
|The activities and/or automated routines for evaluating whether the driving automation system is performing part or all of the DDT appropriately.
|Monitor the driving environment
|The activities and/or automated routines that accomplish real-time roadway environmental object and event detection, recognition, classification, and response preparation (excluding actual response), as needed to operate a vehicle.
|Monitor the user
|The activities and/or automated routines designed to assess whether and to what degree the user is performing the role specified for him/her.
|Monitor vehicle performance [for DDT performance-relevant system failures]
|The activities and/or automated routines that accomplish real-time evaluation of the vehicle performance, and response preparation, as needed to operate a vehicle.
|Naturalistic driving study
|unobtrusive observation of human drivers in uncontrolled test environments
|event requiring a rapid, evasive maneuver to avoid a collision
|Object and event detection and response (OEDR)
|The subtasks of the DDT that include monitoring the driving environment (detecting, recognizing, and classifying objects and events and preparing to respond as needed) and executing an appropriate response to such objects and events (i.e., as needed to complete the DDT and/or DDT fallback).
|quality of representation of a real-world subject’s relevant characteristics by a virtual or physical model
|Any object present in the environment and not belonging to the Frame, Scope or Regulation layers, which should be protected from harm (other road users, domestic animals and property) or capable of creating hazard to the ARTS and/or the ARTS’ end users.
|Obstacle Detection Zone
|Is a zone that includes the safety zone plus a front zone with at least a half circle zone of radius the length the emergency braking distance. All the potential obstacles must be detected and tracked in the obstacle detection zone, in order to calculate a collision risk by regarding the ARTS vehicle planned path and the obstacle predicted trajectory. The collision risk must be assessed in order to adapt the velocity, warn pedestrians/bicyclists in a dangerous trajectory or make an emergency braking. The collision risk calculation shall take into account large objects in the environment, located near the ARTS lane, which can hide road users, which may become potential obstacles. The obstacle detection zone observation is done through the use of on-board sensors and infrastructure sensors, if available. In case of segregation, obstacle detection zone and safety zone are restricted to the segregation limits (continuous barriers and crossing barriers).
|test environment with public traffic
|Operate [a motor vehicle]
|The activities performed by a (human) driver (with or without support from one or more level 1 or 2 driving automation features) or by an ADS (level 3-5) to perform the entire DDT for a given vehicle during a trip.
|Operational design domain (ODD)
|Operating conditions under which a given driving automation system or feature thereof is specifically designed to function, including, but not limited to, environmental, geographical, and time-of-day restrictions, and/or the requisite presence or absence of certain traffic or roadway characteristics.
|Other road user
|All possible road users from the perspective of the ego-vehicle (the AV) i.e. pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, vehicles, automated vehicles
|Park Assist (PA)
|Park Assist automatically steers the car into parallel and bay parking spaces, and also out of
parallel parking spaces. The system assists the driver by automatically carrying out the optimum
steering movements in order to reverse-park on the ideal line. The measurement of the parking
space, the allocation of the starting position and the steering movements are automatically
undertaken by the Park Assist: all the driver has to do is to operate the accelerator and the brake.
This means that the driver retains control of the car at all times.
|Park Distance Control (PDC)
|The Park Distance Control supports the driver to manoeuvre into tight spaces and reduce stress by informing him of the distance from obstacles by means of acoustic or, depending on vehicle, optical signals.
|A user in a vehicle who has no role in the operation of that vehicle.
|tangible representation of a real-world object
|study to evaluate prototype functions or vehicles under typical operating conditions in uncontrolled environments encountered by the vehicle under test
|A group of two or more automated cooperative vehicles in line, maintaining a close distance, typically such a distance to reduce fuel consumption by air drag, to increase traffic safety by use of additional ADAS-technology, and to improve traffic throughput because vehicles are driving closer together and take up less space on the road.
|The acknowledgment of the spatial position of an asset in time, involving in fully automated vehicles relative positioning (for obstacle avoidance or precise guidance with respect to the road markings) and absolute positioning (for retrieving from the digital map the information needed for the navigation).
|First step toward the full Demonstration, used as a rehearsal(WP11).
|Receptivity [of the user]
|An aspect of consciousness characterized by a person’s ability to reliably and appropriately focus his/her attention in response to a stimulus.
|A driver who is not seated in a position to manually exercise in-vehicle braking, accelerating, steering, and transmission gear selection input devices (if any) but is able to operate the vehicle.
|That part of a corrective maintenance in which manual actions are performed on a item. (IEC 60050(191))
|recorded, unmodified, real-world data representing the experienced test
|Request to intervene
|Notification by an ADS to a fallback-ready user indicating that s/he should promptly perform the DDT fallback, which may entail resuming manual operation of the vehicle (i.e., becoming a driver again), or achieving a minimal risk condition if the vehicle is not drivable.
|That event when an item regains the ability to perform a required function after a fault. (IEC 60050(191)).
|state of the environment and vehicle under test at the end of a scenario
|The probable rate of occurrence of a hazard causing harm and the degree of severity of the harm (EN50126).
|The determination of the value of a risk related to a concrete situation of a hazard.
|Condition of an ARTS vehicle where it does not present an impending hazard.
|This is freedom from unacceptable or absence of unreasonable risk of physical injury or of damage to the health of people, either directly, or indirectly as a result of damage to property or to the environment.
|Often a national government body responsible for setting or agreeing the safety requirements for a ARTS and ensuring that the ARTS complies with the requirements (derived from EN50126).
|The documented demonstration that the product complies with the specified safety requirements (EN50126).
|Safety critical event (SCE)
|event with increased collision risk that might lead to a near crash or a crash
|The likelihood of a system satisfactorily performing the required safety functions under all the stated conditions within a stated penod of time (EN50126).
|Person in the automated vehicle
|Is a zone that has the same shape as the emergency zone but is larger and longer at front. Its width is the lane width. Its length is the emergency braking distance + a buffer distance of 5 [m]. The presence of any obstacle in this zone must force the vehicle to decelerate to prevent that an obstacle reaches the emergency zone while the vehicle is not at rest. The safety zone is done through the use of on-board sensors and infrastructure sensors, if available. In case of segregation, obstacle detection zone and safety zone are restricted to the segregation limits (continuous barriers and crossing barriers).
|abstraction and general description of a temporal and spatial traffic constellation without any specification of the parameters
|A scenario parameter is a value used to describe the characteristics of a scenario (e.g. minimum TTC, average speed, minimum distance and trajectory).
|The description of what will happen in the Test Case. Similar to astoryboard, thatcan be used to visualize a scenario as a sequence of scenes (being connected through actions or events)
|snapshot that includes the moving and non-moving elements of the traffic environment, the self-representation of all actors and observers and the relations between those elements
|State of relative freedom from threat or harm caused by deliberate, unwanted, hostile or malicious acts
|Event or events during which the security of an asset, organization or person is, or might be, compromised, either accidentally or deliberately
|Systems that provide a public transport need such as PT, MaaS, LaaS, DRT.
|The severity of the accident describes the injuries to the vehicle occupants and other road users and damage to the vehicle (from material damage to fatal accident)
|One specific level or a combination of more specific levels of situational variables. rain, dark, one passenger in vehicle, motorway, … (either each for itself, or the combination)
|Station Clearance Zone
|It is a zone defined by the length of the edge of the station adjacent to the ARTS lane and a width such that it guarantees that there are no hazards for the end-users during the ARTS vehicle docking and undocking manoeuvres or in case an ARTS vehicle passes the station. Its objective is to replace the safety role of the station doors in ARTS stations not equipped with doors. The station clearance zone is part of the emergency zone.
|Supervise [driving automation performance]
|The driver activities, performed while operating a vehicle with an engaged level 1 or 2 driving automation system feature, to monitor that feature’s performance, respond to inappropriate actions taken by the feature, and to otherwise complete the DDT.
|person at the back office
|required scenario participant that does not directly influence the vehicle under test but limits the action of others
|Sustained operation [of a vehicle]
|Performance of part or all of the DDT both between and across external events, including responding to external events and continuing performance of part or all of the DDT in the absence of external events.
|Set of components or subsystems that relates at least a sensor, a controller and an actuator with one another. Note 1 to entry: the related sensor or actuator can be included in the system, or can be external to the system.
|System failure [DDT performance-relevant]
|A malfunction in a driving automation system and/or other vehicle system that prevents the driving automation system from reliably performing the portion of the DDT on a sustained basis, including the complete DDT, that it would otherwise perform.
|temporary assumption of driving control by the vehicle
|Failures due to errors in any safety lifecycle activity, within any phase, which cause it to fail under some particular combination of inputs or under some particular environmental condition (EN50126).
|The set of conditions that are applied to test a function or system
|The demonstration site specific Use Case.
|Test setup in which scenarios are triggered in order to collect data specific to this scenario event something that happens in a specific period of time which is individuated combining (preprocessed) measures according to predefined rules. crash, near-crash, overtaking manoeuvre, strong deceleration
|Potential cause of an unwanted incident, which may result in harm to a system, individual or organization
|Person or organisation that can pose threats to cyber security
|The maximum level of risk of a product that is acceptable to the Authority. The Authority is responsible for agreeing the risk acceptance criteria and the risk acceptance levels with the Safety Regulatory Authority (SRA).
Usually, it is the SRA or the RA by agreement with the SRA that defines risk acceptance levels. Risk acceptance levels currently depend on the prevailing national legislation or national/other regulations. In many countries risk acceptance levels have not yet been established and are still in progress and/or under consideration.
|period of testing during which the variables/system under study are manipulated
|The traversal of an entire travel pathway by a vehicle from the point of origin to a destination.
|The procedure whereby an approval authority certifies that a type of vehicle, system, component or separate technical unit satisfies the relevant administrative provisions and technical requirements.
|Uncontrolled test environment (UTE)
|setting under which all variables external to the vehicle under test are not determined
|Risk judged to be unacceptable in a certain context according to valid societal moral concepts
|A particular level of driving automation within a particular ODD.
|Use Case (UC)
|A specific event in which a system is expected to behave according to a specified function car following
|Use Case (UC)
|List of actions or event steps typically defining the interactions between a role (known in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) as an actor) and a system to achieve a goal. The actor can be a human or other external system.
|Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use have been fulfilled (EN50126).
|A machine designed to provide conveyance on public streets, roads, and highways.
|Vehicle under test (VUT)
|scenario participant whose behavior is of primary interest
|Vehicle-to-everything communication (V2X)
|The passing of information from a vehicle to any entity (vehicles, infrastructure, etc.) that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa
|Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that the specified requirements have been fulfilled (EN50126).
|software representation of a real-world object
|Weakness that can be exploited by one or more threats